People are sometimes surprised when I tell them that the biggest challenge for writers these days is awareness. With fewer bookshops, fewer literary events, and limited budget for promotion, simply letting people know that your book exists is a critical challenge.
But it’s more than that – these days, people just don’t read books at the rate they used to.
For example, a recent study by Pew Research in the US found that 27% of American adults have not read a book at all in the last year, a stat that’s almost doubled since 2005 (the researchers note that the rate of non-book readers first hit 27% in 2015).
The most likely culprit, based on comparative trend data, would be the rise of mobile devices, and with social media being the most used app type, it’s likely due to the fact that people are now more likely to scroll through their social feeds in bed before going to sleep, as opposed to getting through a few more book chapters instead.
The arrival of colour TV in the 60s was the first major impact for books, and as you can see in this chart, those distractions have only increased in the 2000’s, so it makes sense that we’ve seen relative declines.
The extended impacts of this shift are likely far more significant than we realize. Given that books help expand our thinking, and improve cognitive process, it’s not a stretch to say that society is now less intelligent and analytical as a result – but again, the key point from a writing perspective is that getting people to even consider taking the time to sit down and read your book at all is hard, and it’s not even because of the market itself, and the other storytellers you’re up against. You’re actually going up against complex social platform algorithms that are designed to hold people’s attention using psychological tricks and incentives.
Given this, you can assume that people are less actively seeking books to read, which again points to the challenges of awareness. If people aren’t even looking for books, your potential for exposure is already significantly hampered.
Raising awareness is hard – and while the common counter-argument to this is that authors should simply “write better books”, often implying a need for more commercial sensibilities, I would argue that, given these noted limitations, this isn’t even a significant element. There are plenty of good books out there that are just not reaching an audience – quite simply, they’re not even being given a chance, which makes an objective analysis of quality, based on sales data alone, impossible.
And there’s more – Hollywood film studios are now taking fewer risks with smaller budget movies, and focusing on blockbusters, in order to provide a cinematic experience that can’t be replicated via newer big-screen TVs and home entertainment systems. That means fewer book-to-film adaptations – or at least, fewer art house films based on novels – which is a pathway that’s long been a key pipeline to connecting more general audiences to literary works.
The flow-on effect then is that publishers also shift focus. Logically, publishers need to primarily sell books, so you end up seeing more and more of what’s making money (i.e. what sells in Big W), and less risks on new voices and styles, limiting publishing opportunities. That, consequently, changes the focus of festivals, who also need to sell tickets, further shrinking your window for exposure, and again making it harder to gain awareness.
Add it all up and it doesn’t look promising. Who’d be a writer, honestly?
And yet, we persist.
We write because for most of us it’s part of who we are, because something compels us to keep at it, to keep working towards creating something, hopefully, great. But on balance, getting people’s attention is not going to get any easier, and getting them to actually read your work even less so. Building a sustainable career as a fiction author is getting more difficult, and while technological advances have also facilitated new avenues in terms of self-publishing and building your own audience, establishing enough of a presence to fuel a reliable sales pipeline remains a significant challenge, especially without mainstream media reach.
Which brings us back to awareness.
Again, the key challenge for authors is raising awareness, getting your book in front of the right people, in order to even pitch them on what it is in the first place. This has always been a challenge, but the odds are now stacked against you even more.
So how can we get more people looking our way, and spark more interest in our own, and others’ literary works?
Like it or not, social media is key, building a presence and maximizing your reach opportunities. Taking part in events is essential, doing talks, getting in touch with libraries about potential functions. Authors now need to be marketers – which, for many, is the opposite of their personality. But you have to do it. If you build it, they will not come, necessarily, but if you build hype, they will indeed start looking in your direction.
From a broader scope, the decline in book readership points to an increased need for literary arts funding from government, and a greater focus from government-funded arts bodies on promoting local authors and their work.
If literary festivals (or as they’re increasingly titled, ‘words and ideas’ events) are increasingly funded by the private sector, it’s only logical that their programming decisions will also be increasingly driven by bottom-line results. That means more exposure for the few, less share of voice for the many. And again, less awareness as a result, completing the circle of decline.
And the trends do indeed show that literary culture is declining.
It may not seem so drastic, it may not seem like this decline is having a major impact. But you can arguably see the results of this in all levels of public discourse.
And while again, some would say that we should simply let it go, especially in terms of literary fiction, the more niche and high brow of the book genres, the impacts will be far broader than you would suspect.
That’s why we need greater representation for authors, and opportunities for local writers to showcase their work, wherever possible. We need to show new writers that there are opportunities for them, and that they should feel free to write what they’re passionate about, as opposed to trying to fit into a certain genre box.
Literary culture has underpinned centuries of civilization, helping us to better understand the world, and opening discussions which would otherwise not have happened.
We should be fighting for it, and looking for ways to build platforms of opportunity.
As you may have heard, a group of Australian authors recently launched a campaign to help raise funds for the volunteer firefighting groups who are currently battling the massive bushfires impacting several regions across Australia.
Some of these volunteers have spent months away from family and loved ones, often at their own expense, risking their lives to help save other peoples’ property, and the work they’re undertaking is grueling, unforgiving, and this fire season in particular, relentless.
The #AuthorsForFireys campaign, which is running on Twitter, has grown significantly, and there are now a heap of big-name authors – both from Australia and overseas – who are offering some amazing packages, including mentoring, copyediting and professional manuscript feedback, along with signed books and related items for fans.
I’m a very small player within this larger pool of literary superstars, but I’ve also put forward what I can offer, if anyone might be interested.
Okay, this is what I’ve got for #authorsforfireys
– A pre-release, alternate cover version of my novel Rohypnol
– A copy of the German version of Rohypnol
– A copy of my latest novel One
All personally signed to the winning bidder. pic.twitter.com/W8b1nGw2P3
— Andrew Hutchinson (@adhutchinson) January 7, 2020
This is an amazing campaign for all aspiring writers to be aware of, and get involved in – and some of these offers could actually end up being the thing that helps you get that initial momentum that you need to get your work published.
It feels less joyful amid the current bushfire crisis, but I am pleased to share that ‘One’ was recently announced as a shortlisted title for the 2019 ACT Book the Year Award.
The winners will be announced sometime this month – fingers crossed.
In 2009, my home town of Kinglake was hit by the Black Saturday bushfires, which killed 173 people and destroyed more than 2, 000 homes. I wasn’t living in Kinglake at the time, I’d moved to the city about five years prior, but I had family there. My grandparents and my aunt and uncle didn’t lose their houses. My brother did.
Kinglake is (or was back then) a small town, where everyone sort of knows everyone, so I also knew a lot of people who were impacted. In the weeks following the fire, you couldn’t go up to Kinglake without a resident pass on your car, but I went up with my brother, and I got to see people I hadn’t seen in ages, their faces still half shocked, each of them perpetually on the brink of tears. The horrors they explained to me are difficult to comprehend, and while several books have been written about the Black Saturday fires, none of them has come close to expressing the emotion they shared, even in the smallest details.
These are events which etch themselves into the psyche of those in its wake, the smoke seeps into their bones and becomes a part of who they are. No one can fully comprehend the enormity of such an incident. In my mind, fire moves slow, you can see it coming from a mile off and you can get away if you leave in time. That’s not the reality that these people faced.
I’ve heard stories of animals on fire, writhing in the smoke, human bodies in burnt out car wrecks, shrivelled and shrunken in. My brother was part of a CFA team that rescued a young girl, who took shelter in a dam as the fire front hit. Her skin was basically melting off her bones as she ran to meet them. These are not images you can shake out of your mind, the impacts of such events will linger inside these people forever.
Now, ten years later, we’re witnessing yet another major fire event. And while debate rages around what could have been done, what sparked the blazes, and how we address future threats, keep in mind the people at the centre of this. The people who’ve lost everything, things that insurance cannot recover. Pets, memories. A sense of place. A feeling of home. It’s easy to overlook these things when it’s not you that’s impacted, but the ripples of this catastrophe will resonate throughout these communities, and the nation more broadly, for years to come.
Research shows that over a quarter of the people who were in the worst affected areas during Black Saturday showed signs of significant mental health problems, while PTSD and suicide rates rose as people struggled to recover.
If you can help, please do so wherever you can, and if you know of anyone in the impacted areas, please reach out to them and let them know that you’re there, and that you’re ready to listen if ever they need. It’ll also be important, at some stage, that people look to head back to the coastal areas, in particular, to visit, as towns which are largely reliant on tourist income have also been hit by this crisis.
Definitely, people have a right to demand answers from the government as to its lack of action in this respect, but make sure that anger doesn’t overtake the need to consider the humanitarian impact, which will stretch on for lifetimes.
You can donate to the Red Cross or Salvation Army relief efforts to directly benefit bushfire victims, you can also donate to the RSPCA Bushfire Appeal and the NSW Wildlife Information Rescue and Education Service (WIRES) who are working to provide assistance for impacted wildlife, while The Black Dog Institute and Fearless are both working to assist the victims of post-traumatic stress. Comedian Magda Szubanski is also raising money to help bushfire victims long term with trauma and mental health support.
Main image via @gnat_fly/Twitter
Penguin Random House Publishing Direct Justin Ractliffe recently wrote a new, in-depth report for The Copyright Agency which examines the evolving consumer marketplace for books in Australia, and how publishers can align with modern reader shifts.
The report provides some interesting perspective on the utilization of data-driven insights as a driver of publishing success, and repeatedly refers to Netflix as an example of a modern, content-focused business which has built consumer data into its product decisions, leading to greater success.
Which is not surprising – Netflix has repeatedly been held up as an example of how modern data analytics can be used to maximize traditional creative processes.
You may recall the story of how Netflix used ‘big data’ to create ‘House of Cards’, which all of its indicators showed would be a hit.
As per SOFY:
“Netflix identified that the British version of House of Cards was watched by many subscribers. Those members who watched the British version of House of Cards also seemed to favor movies starring Kevin Spacey. This was one of the patterns that led to Kevin Spacey being cast in the lead role – in fact, big data was instrumental in how most of the characters were cast. It had a role in how the script was finalized and how the overall narrative progressed.”
Brilliant, right? Tapping into consumer data, from Netflix’s 155 million subscribers, to create shows which align with their interests, thus driving viewer loyalty. Great.
Except that’s not really true.
Definitely, Netflix, as a case study, provides some interesting considerations, as noted by Ratcliffe, but the correlation/causation elements of this argument don’t play out as strong when you dig a little further. Yes, Netflix has achieved success – but how much of that, really, comes down to its original content?
Here’s a simple counter – Netflix published some 700 original shows in 2018, and 80 original films. How many of them can you name?
Sure, Netflix has had some big hits – the platform has struck gold with shows like ‘Orange is the New Black’ and ‘Stranger Things’, and movies like ‘Bird Box’. But on balance, Netflix’s production output is still fairly hit and miss. If Netflix’s data-driven approach were as spot on as implied, why are so many of its offerings failing to gain momentum, and attract big audiences?
But Netflix has 155 million subscribers, which many use an indicator of the success of its original content. Is that an accurate correlation?
Not necessarily. Netflix benefits from brand equity as much as it does from its content – the platform is cheap to access (in relative terms), provides access to a heap of movies and TV shows (Netflix-created an otherwise), and there are also, every now and then, cool, original shows that people want to watch. Given these various elements, it’s impossible to attribute how much of Netflix’s overall success comes down to its’ own productions.
To make it an even more difficult comparison, Netflix doesn’t actually reveal any viewership numbers, so we have no idea what’s working and what isn’t on the platform.
Netflix did, just recently, publish a list of its best performing originals between 2018 and 2019, which provides some insight:
But as noted by The Guardian, it’s interesting, here, to note that only two of the shows listed weren’t a first season. So, again, despite Netflix’s data insights, it’s clearly not fueling ongoing success – which suggests that, potentially, the user analytics-driven approach isn’t as effective as suggested.
Arguably, the Netflix programs which have seen success have been driven to higher levels of viewership by the social media hype train, as opposed to simply aligning with consumption data. Indeed, ‘Black Mirror’, ‘Stranger Things’ and ’13 Reasons Why’ were all among the most tweeted about TV shows in 2018, while the Bird Box challenge became a trending meme on social media, which undoubtedly increased views of that film. In each case, an alternative view could suggest that it’s not consumer data that’s lead to their eventual success, but influence – slotting into the zeitgeist of the day and prompting expanded discussion, which then leads more people to take a look.
As such, maybe it’s not so much data-driven decision making that publishers should be investigating, but viral dynamics – studies like this one by Steve Rayson which dig into the reasons behind why such trends occur, with a view to fanning your own waves of success.
But that path, which requires understanding modern communication dynamics, aligning with pathways that lead to increased social media traction, and igniting those first sparks in just the right spots, is definitely not easy. It’s worth noting too that Ratcliffe doesn’t definitively suggest that publishers should adopt a strictly data-driven approach, but the risk in adopting such a strategy is that you end up narrowing the field too significantly. Basically, my response after reading Ratcliffe’s thesis was ‘I hope people really liked ‘Boy Swallows Universe”.
At core, my concern with Ratcliffe’s overview is that it looks to cater to the existing audience of readers, as opposed to seeking ways to win more readers back. And of course, the latter goal might not even be viable, but if you’re looking to make data-backed decisions, and the data you use is limited in scope, because the reading market is already narrower than before, then that seems like more of a path to eventual obsolesence, as your audience will thin further and further the more you refine your targeting.
But then again, the alternative is not a lot better – the truth is that people’s reading habits have changed, and with so many distractions available to us 24/7, asking someone to take the time to read a full novel these days is asking a lot. People aren’t reading as widely as they once were – which, as to Ratcliffe’s suggestions, points to the benefits of maximizing those who are.
As an author, and someone who loves to see new voices, that concerns me. But from a marketing perspective, I see the logic.
But I would argue that the Netflix data-driven model is not as solid as many suggest. Again, Netflix created 80 new shows in 2018, and relatively few of them resonated. And you don’t have to take my word for it – go watch them, a lot of them just simply don’t work.
At the rates that Netflix publishes, its track record is not much better than any other publisher, even with its added consumer insight. Which would suggest that the existing publishing models, which rely upon the knowledge of publishers – their ‘gut feel’ as it were – are probably just as good.
It seems less about the data in the acquisition process, and more about the marketing push, using elements like influencer marketing and similar dynamics, to amplify messaging.
But the market is narrowing, as are opportunities.
I haven’t posted here in a while. Partly because I don’t have anything new to share – I don’t have any new publication dates or anything set to be released in the near future. But also, because I’ve been contemplating where I’m at with my fiction work, and how to push through to that next stage.
Also, I’ve been writing. I’ve written three new novel manuscripts in the last two years, along with a screenplay, a YA novel manuscript and I’m currently working on a series for younger readers, aimed at my nine year-old son. I have a set writing routine, I’m able to commit time to doing it, and I want to make sure I use that capacity while it lasts. You never know when life changes might take your writing time away, so once you have it, you need to keep going.
And in some ways it’s freeing, being able to work on the projects I want to, dedicating the time to editing and reworking and getting them to a presentable state. But also, not having another deal locked in is scary.
I commit a lot of time and effort to writing, and will do so as long as I can, but it’s difficult to tell, in the current market, whether my ideas will make it. I remain confident that they will, eventually. But publishers’ budgets are getting tighter, and reader interests are, at least seemingly, narrowing in. I believe in my work – but will it actually work in the current environment? Can I find an audience and deliver for my publisher, solidifying my career?
And then there’s the more philosophical question – does that even matter?
I mean, I’ll always write, whether for thousands of readers or none, I’ll always come up with stories and ideas that I want to explore and flesh out. And in some ways, that’s probably enough – but then again, there are bills to pay, and the time I spend writing I could spend doing something more directly tied to income.
For the vast majority of writers, fiction doesn’t pay much, and most authors wouldn’t be doing it for the money – cause they could make more elsewhere. But it’s still a consideration, it’s important on some level.
But where do you draw the line – how much time is too much to be allocating to a task with indeterminate return? I’m sure this is a dilemma that all writers face – and again, I know that I’ll keep writing, I’ll keep doing what I love, keep working to improve. But the questions of promotion, of raising awareness, of how you go about boosting your profile, how you make money – while also matching that with, you know, actually doing the work itself, is always difficult.
There are government funding options to consider, of course, but those too are in increasingly limited supply. And also, I don’t need them as such. I work full-time, I can pay the bills. I would generally rather leave those options to writers more in need – because they’re likely the voices that we really need to nurture in order to broaden our perspectives. But maybe that’s the wrong way to look at it.
Essentially, I haven’t posted anything here in a while because I’m waiting. For the next big announcement, the next step. And I’m not exactly sure what that is just yet.
So I’m working. I’m writing every day, refining my sentences, filling in my plot holes, tightening up my language. Improving where I can.
But I guess, aside from wanting to provide some sort of update, I also wanted to share that the process is hard, for everyone, and no one has all the answers. Even two books in, I still have periods of total self doubt. But I always come back to why I write.
Is it to make money? No, though that would be ideal. Is it to build a profile and chase some sort of literary ‘fame’? No, not at all.
I write because it’s what I love to do, and if I can somehow fund that work though publication, while also connecting with an audience, that’s the ideal.
But will I keep writing anyway, if that doesn’t eventuate? Sure. I mean, it’s what I do.
And the more you practice, the better you get.
Note: I was partly reminded/inspired to get back to my blog by this post from author Matt Davies, which all authors and prospective writers should read.
I’m always writing, working on one writing project or another. I was able to establish a good daily routine which enabled me to allocate time to fiction properly when writing ONE, and since then, I’ve tried to stay active, to keep working on new projects, so I don’t end up filling that time with something else.
I have a few projects in various stages – so nothing is definitively set in stone as yet – but here’s an overview of the main things I’m working on, and hoping to get to the next level sometime soon.
How in control of your life are you really?
Control follows the intersecting stories of four very different characters, as each navigates their own major life shifts, with their past experiences returning to define their current perspective. Can you truly escape your past? Is your life everything you believe it’s become?
Are you really as in control as you think?
A Home (Novel)
What if your child was hurt by someone, by another adult, when you weren’t there to protect them? How would you respond? Could you just let it go, or would you seek revenge, your own form of justice?
A Home follows the story of a father who chooses the latter path, hunting down the man who hurt his son in order to confront him, and his own regrets in failing his boy. But is revenge the answer? Does anger lead to real resolution?
A modern-day take on a Western-style story, A Home explores themes of protection, retribution and healing, and how we come to live with the hardest of realizations.
Argonaut (YA Novel)
In the mid-nineties, in a country town in rural Victoria, a teen girl commits suicide. No one wants to talk about it, people would rather avoid the topic entirely. But one young boy wants to know where she went, what happened to the girl who lived over the back fence.
For a school project, he decides to investigate the case, and he finds that the more he asks, the more he pushes the boundaries, opening wounds which are still healing and disturbing the close community. But maybe it is something we should be asking, and discussing with younger generations, rather than sweeping it under the carpet.
Set against the backdrop of a town event to celebrate the launch of a new war memorial, Argonaut looks at our contrasting approaches to death – and confronts us with questions of how that impacts our broader perception.
The Returned (Screenplay)
A magnetic disturbance has been pulling boats and aircraft into a remote section of the Southern Ocean, possibly for years. Now, they’ve found it, but they’ve also found survivors, frozen in the wreckage. And once they’re recovered, years out of time, re-connecting with the world seems impossible.
The Returned is a science fiction mystery story which looks at what it means to be isolated, and what the reality might be, if you were somehow displaced. And there’s more to the disturbance than it even initially seems.
In a time of personal data tracking, political confusion and larger concerns that impact the very future of our planet, it’s easy to get lost in the vastness of it all, to feel powerless, floating in the middle, hoping for the best.
Do you ever feel like just going? Just packing your bags and heading on your way, getting away from everything?
Sunshine follows the story of one man who does just that. In the wake of the hardest incident he’s ever had to face, he decides that there’s nothing here for him, that his life, as it stands, is finished. So he leaves, heading off on an uncertain journey to find a mythical location that he doesn’t know exists. He has no phone, no vehicle and limited funds, as he walks north, looking for the edge of the world.
Incorporating a modern take on the work of ‘bush poet’ Henry Lawson, Sunshine is an epic journey that criss-crosses the Australian landscape, taking in the sights and sounds along an emotional trip.
As noted, all of these projects are at various stages, and any and all details could change. But hopefully I’ll have more to share on each some time soon.
Today is the final day of school holidays – which means that tomorrow, my kids go back to school, and I go back to my regular writing routine.
It’s the greatest being able to spend time with the kids, but it obviously makes it hard to set aside the time to write in peace, especially amid the arguments over Pokemon, Roblox and whatever else it is they’re doing.
It’s been stupidly hot in Canberra too, which has limited what we can do, so it’ll be good for the kids to get back to hanging out with their friends and moving into a new school year.
For me, the long break is all about reading as much as I can, and writing notes on ideas and inspirations, and I have a heap of little reminders and scribbles in my notebooks that I now get a chance to delve into and see what comes out as I move back into full-on creative flow.
It’s great hanging out with the kids, but I’m very much looking forward to getting back to it, and burying myself in the depth of the next project to see what pans out.
And a relevant note here too for those trying to work out their own writing routine – I’d heard for years that the more you write the easier it gets, that if you get down, say, a thousand words per day, it all starts to flow eventually. I personally never found that advice overly helpful, until I really made it a focus – and while not everyone has the time or capacity to write that much, I can absolutely vouch for the fact that developing a writing routine does work. I’ve written more in the last two years than I had in the previous decade.
It’s hard to set aside time in amongst everything else you need to get done each day, and you have to push yourself a lot to get the ball rolling. But just like exercise, once you start moving, and stick with it, it gets easier. Till you can’t imagine not doing it.
Hopefully I’ll have more to share on my latest writing projects some time soon.
(FYI – The above image is my writing bag, with the various books, notepads and the mass of pens that I take with me wherever I go to write. The books change relevant to each project, as I use notes or passages for inspiration, or as a guide for sentence flow and structure, dependent on what I’m going for.)
Often when I tell people that I’m a writer, the perception they have is that I head down the local cafe at my leisure, then scribble a few notes, taking in the day with the ease as I ‘bang out a few words’.
That, of course, is not true – as any writer knows, actually making money doing what you do is not easy, it takes a heap of effort, and massive leaps of faith, labouring over tasks that may never ‘pay off’.
But that’s not why you do it – if making money was your aim, there are much easier ways to go about it. I write because it’s what I am, it’s what I’ve always been, I can’t think of anything else I’d rather do. Definitely, I wish it were all cafes and long lunches and staring at sunsets. But it’s not. Building a sustainable writing career is basically a series of trade-offs, taking the best bets in line with your passions to come up with a system that works for you.
For me, I wake up everyday at around 4am. Why? Because for my ‘day job’ (i.e. not writing fiction), I write for a website, covering digital marketing news and updates. That website is based in the US, so I need to wake up early to be up on the latest news coverage, while it also gives me some silence to concentrate before the kids wake up.
I research the majority my my work before the kids are up at 6am, then write and manage the website/social media stuff till normally around 12pm each day. The advantage of this is that this leaves me with three hours, every day, between 12pm and when the kids finish school at 3pm, to concentrate on my fiction work – I always have at least one novel or longer work in progress, and I spend a good 15 hours per week on that element.
This is a good set up for me, it enables me to maximize my productivity – but as noted, it comes with various trade-offs.
For one, you have to get up at 4am, a non-negotiable for most. But if I don’t, I don’t get my time later in the day, so that helps me will myself out of bad in the darkness.
Another trade-off is that I don’t make as much money as I probably could in a regular, every day job. I worked in corporate roles for years and have a fair measure of what I could potentially be earning. That impact is lessened, of course, by the additional earnings potential of my fiction work, but that, in itself, is another consideration.
As noted, fiction writing is a bit of a leap of faith. Most Australian authors don’t make a heap of money out of their work, but you do it because you love it, because you’re passionate about the process, and because, hopefully, you might connect with an audience.
But you don’t know if it’s going to work out. Part of the difficulty in investing so much time and effort into fiction work is it may all be for nought – I spend 15 hours a week, at least, on fiction writing, which is a total gamble. I have the backing of previous success to support my belief that it’s not time wasted, but still, it’s a big commitment for an uncertain return.
There are other trade offs too – staying home to write when the family goes away, isolating yourself and limiting social interactions. If you want to succeed, maybe you also need to take on projects you’re less passionate about in order to pay the bills. Anyone pursuing their passion in any field knows the same challenges, it’s not isolated to writing. But it’s a lot of uncertainty, there aren’t many sure bets.
You do it because you love it, because you want to make it work, but there are few writers living the high life, the cafe lifestyle, sitting at the beach all day just waiting for inspiration.
That’s not to denigrate the process – it is what it is, and you deal with the various obstacles as best you can. But writing, as with any art, is not an easy path, it takes dedication and commitment to make it happen.
And you’re never quite sure that things are going to go as you hope.